Alimentazione del bambino: calorie e nutrienti

Approfondiamo il discorso sull’alimentazione del bambino cominciato con il precedente articolo, cercando di puntualizzare quali sono i quantitativi di cibo che un bambino dovrebbe introdurre, e che tipo di cibo introdurre, ovvero quante proteine, quanti carboidrati e quanti grassi.

Il bambino da 1 a 6 anni cambia in modo sensibile, ma le esigenze nutrizionali vedremo non essere poi così enormemente diverse.

Il fabbisogno energetico medio va dalle 800 Kcal per un bambino di 1 anno, alle 1600 Kcal per uno di 6 anni.

Per quanto riguarda il fabbisogno dei principali macro-nutrienti, estrapolato dagli ultimi LARN (Livelli di Assunzione di Riferimento di Nutrienti ed energia per la popolazione italiana) :

  • Proteine: circa 1 grammo di proteine per ogni Kg di peso del bambino (attenzione che 1 gr di proteine non corrisponde ad 1 gr di carne, ma a molto meno! In 100 gr di carne potete trovarne circa 20-25 gr).
  • Carboidrati: il consumo di carboidrati è invariato in tutte le fasce di età e va dal 45 al 60% del totale delle calorie introdotte nella giornata. E’ inoltre fortemente raccomandabile non superare il 15% di carboidrati provenienti da zuccheri semplici per non avere rischi a lungo termine per la salute.
  • Grassi: da 1 a 3 anni è consigliabile consumare il 35-40% di grassi rispetto al fabbisogno energetico giornaliero (ad esempio: su 1000 Kcal di fabbisogno, circa 400 Kcal devono provenire da grassi), facendo attenzione a NON consumare acidi grassi trans (quelli del cibo spazzatura, tanto per intenderci) e a non superare il quantitativo di grassi saturi (quelli di derivazione animale) che corrisponde al 10% del totale dei grassi introdotti con la dieta. Lo stesso discorso vale per i bambini dai 4 ai 6 anni, con l’unica differenza che il quantitativo totale di grassi scende al 20-35% del totale.
  • Acqua: è consigliabile che il bambino da 1 a 3 anni beva circa 1,2 litri di acqua al giorno, mentre tra i 4 e i 6 anni il quantitativo di acqua arriva ad 1,6 l, quasi tanto quanto dovrebbe bere un adulto. (Il quantitativo di acqua raccomandato si calcola, per convenzione, sulla base delle calorie introdotte con la dieta: 1 ml di acqua per ogni Kcal consumata).

Quali sono i consigli generali?

  • Frazionare la dieta in almeno 5 pasti giornalieri (colazione, spuntino, pranzo, merenda, cena).
  • Preferire i pasti completi, o piatti unici, almeno a pranzo e cena (carboidrati, grassi e proteine insieme).
  • Alternare sempre le fonti proteiche tra carne, pesce, uova, formaggi e legumi e i cereali.
  • Proporre sempre una porzione di verdura cotta o cruda e una porzione di frutta fresca, tutto, quando e se possibile, di stagione.
  • Non eccedere con i condimenti e con sale e zucchero, almeno nei primi 3 anni di vita del bambino.

Infine, per tirare le somme, l’alimentazione del bambino è di poco diversa rispetto a quella che dovrebbe seguire un adulto consapevole. Vale sempre la regola del dare il buon esempio in famiglia!


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